Investigation of defects formed by ion implantation of H2+ into silicon

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Title: Investigation of defects formed by ion implantation of H2+ into silicon
Author: Whiting, Patrick
Abstract: Ion cutting achieved by the implantation of hydrogen or the co-implantation of hydrogen and helium is among the most common methods for the formation of Silicon on Insulator (SOI) structures used in the semiconductor industry. In this method, hydrogen is implanted into silicon at a high fluence and is heated in order to induce and exfoliation event. During this exfoliation event, a silicon wafer is cleaved along the depth at which the maximum damage concentration occurs, and the cleaved material bonds chemically to any underlying material being used as a handle substrate. The ion implantation process induces a variety of defect species which evolve as they are annealed at varying temperatures and times and the characteristics of these defects and the reactions which dominate their formation are critical for low temperature substrates such as LCD glass. This study observes the annealing characteristics of a variety of structural and electronic defects induced by ion implantation, including hydrogen decorated monovacancies and hydrogen decorated interstitials. The states arising from these decorated point defects were analyzed using Multiple Internal Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (MIT-IR) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). A method for observing implant-related defects on a MOS Capacitor using a DLTS measurement was developed. A new method for extracting the activation energy and the capture cross section of states observed with DLTS through the use of the Full Width at "Nth" Maximum was also developed. MIT-IR spectra resulting from ion implantation were analyzed using a novel method to extract the activation energy, reaction velocity and order of a solid state reaction, termed Kinetic Differential Analysis. Analysis using the methods described above allowed for the identification of five trap energy levels associated with hydrogen ion implantation which were tentatively assigned to VH2 (.15eV) VH3 (~.54eV) and IHx (.16eV and .19eV) defects. Kinetic Differential Analysis of MIT-IR spectra has identified reaction pathways associated with the "decay" of decorated monovacancy defects These chemical reactions have kinetic reaction orders of approximately 1.5, indicating a secondary reaction which contributes to the decay as well as some general interaction between reactants during the decay process.
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Date: 2009-08

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