Measurement of residual stress in electrodeposited nickel films

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Title: Measurement of residual stress in electrodeposited nickel films
Author: Richardson, Gary
Abstract: For nearly as long as people have had the ability to create deposits by electrodeposition it has been known that the deposits are made in a state of internal stress. Throughout the past one hundred years several simple techniques used to measure these stresses have been developed. Unfortunately these methods have several shortcomings in both their formulation and interpretation, and seldom have the results from any of these tests been verified by another method. As electroplating becomes utilized to a greater extent in the high-tech applications of aerospace, optics, and electronics it is becoming ever more crucial to gain the ability to measure and understand the state of stress in a deposit. The intent of this research was to develop better means of modeling the deflection processes used in the simple testing techniques currently available and to verify the results of these measurements by xray diffraction, and these goals have been reasonably met. An improved numerical model of the deflection phenomenon associated with the change of length method was developed, and the results obtained by analyzing experimental data with this model were compared with calculations made by traditional models. In general, a strong correlation between the steady state stress values provided by each method was found to exist. Furthermore, when stress measurements obtained by the change of length method were compared to residual stress measurements made by x-ray diffraction of samples created under similar experimental conditions, a strong qualitative correlation between the two was found to exist.
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Date: 1999-09

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