Water immersion optical lithography at 193 nm

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dc.contributor.author Smith, Bruce en_US
dc.contributor.author Bourov, Anatoly en_US
dc.contributor.author Kang, Hoyoung en_US
dc.contributor.author Cropanese, Frank en_US
dc.contributor.author Fan, Yongfa en_US
dc.contributor.author Lafferty, Neal en_US
dc.contributor.author Zavyalova, Lena en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2007-07-05T13:42:52Z en_US
dc.date.available 2007-07-05T13:42:52Z en_US
dc.date.issued 2004-01 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Microlithography, Microfabrication, and Microsystems 3N1 (2004) 44-51 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1537-1646 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1850/4206 en_US
dc.description Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. This paper was published in Journal of Microlithography, Microfabrication, and Microsytems, Volume 3, Number 1, and is made available as an electronic reprint with permission of SPIE. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited. en_US
dc.description RIT community members may access full-text via RIT Libraries licensed databases: http://library.rit.edu/databases/
dc.description.abstract Historically, the application of immersion optics to microlithography has not been seriously pursued because of the alternative technologies available. As the challenges of shorter wavelength become increasingly difficult, immersion imaging becomes more feasible. We present results from research into 193-nm excimer laser immersion lithography at extreme propagation angles. This is being carried out in a fluid that is most compatible in a manufacturable process, namely water. By designing a system around the optical properties of water, we are able to image with wavelengths down to 193 nm. Measured absorption is below 0.50 cm^-1 at 185 nm and below 0.05 cm^-1 at 193 nm. Furthermore, through the development of oblique angle imaging, numerical apertures approaching 1.0 in air and 1.44 in water are feasible. The refractive index of water at 193 nm allows for exploration of the following: k1 values near 0.25 leading to half-pitch resolution approaching 35 nm at a 193-nm wavelength; polarization effects at oblique angles (extreme NA); immersion and photoresist interactions with polarization; immersion fluid composition, temperature, flow, and micro-bubble influence on optical properties (index, absorption, aberration, birefringence); mechanical requirements for imaging, scanning, and wafer transport in a water media; and synthesizing conventional projection imaging via interferometric imaging (Refer to PDF file for exact formulas). en_US
dc.description.sponsorship n/a en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) en_US
dc.relation RIT Scholars content from RIT Digital Media Library has moved from http://ritdml.rit.edu/handle/1850/4206 to RIT Scholar Works http://scholarworks.rit.edu/article/852, please update your feeds & links!
dc.relation.ispartofseries vol. 3 en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries no. 1 en_US
dc.subject Excimer lasers en_US
dc.subject Immersion en_US
dc.subject Optical extension en_US
dc.subject Optical lithography en_US
dc.title Water immersion optical lithography at 193 nm en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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