An FPGA architecture design of a high performance adaptive notch filter

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Title: An FPGA architecture design of a high performance adaptive notch filter
Author: Szalkowski, Michael James
Abstract: The occurrence of narrowband interference near frequencies carrying information is a common problem in modern control and signal processing applications. A very narrow notch filter is required in order to remove the unwanted signal while not compromising the integrity of the carrier signal. In many practical situations, the interference may wander within a frequency band, in which case a wider notch filter would be needed to guarantee its removal, which may also allow for the degradation of information being carried in nearby frequencies. If the interference frequency could be autonomously tracked, a narrow bandwidth notch filter could be successfully implemented for the particular frequency. Adaptive signal processing is a powerful technique that can be used in the tracking and elimination of such a signal. An application where an adaptive notch filter becomes necessary is in biomedical instrumentation, such as the electrocardiogram recorder. The recordings can become useless when in the presence of electromagnetic fields generated by power lines. Research was conducted to fully characterize the interference. Research on notch filter structures and adaptive filter algorithms has been carried out. The lattice form filter structure was chosen for its inherent stability and performance benefits. A new adaptive filter algorithm was developed targeting a hardware implementation. The algorithm used techniques from several other algorithms that were found to be beneficial. This work developed the hardware implementation of a lattice form adaptive notch filter to be used for the removal of power line interference from electrocardiogram signals. The various design tradeo s encountered were documented. The final design was targeted toward multiple field programmable gate arrays using multiple optimization efforts. Those results were then compared. The adaptive notch filter was able to successfully track and remove the interfering signal. The lattice form structure utilized by the proposed filter was verified to exhibit an inherently stable realization. The filter was subjected to various environments that modeled the different power line disturbances that could be present. The final filter design resulted in a 3 dB bandwidth of 15.8908 Hz, and a null depth of 54 dB. For the baseline test case, the algorithm achieved convergence after 270 iterations. The final hardware implementation was successfully verified against the MATLAB simulation results. A speedup of 3.8 was seen between the Xilinx Virtex-5 and Spartan-II device technologies. The final design used a small fraction of the available resources for each of the two devices that were characterized. This would allow the component to be more readily available to be added to existing projects, or further optimized by utilizing additional logic.
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Date: 2008-06

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