Automatic image annotation using adaptive color classification

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Title: Automatic image annotation using adaptive color classification
Author: Saber, Eli; Tekalp, M.; Eschbach, R.; Knox, K.
Abstract: We describe a system which automatically annotates images with a set of prespecified keywords, based on supervised color classification of pixels into N prespecified classes using simple pixelwise operations. The conditional distribution of the chrominance components of pixels belonging to each class is modeled by a two-dimensional Gaussian function, where the mean vector and the covariance matrix for each class are estimated from appropriate training sets. Then, a succession of binary hypothesis tests with image-adaptive thresholds has been employed to decide whether each pixel in a given image belongs to one of the predetermined classes. To this effect, a universal decision threshold is first selected for each class based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves quantifying the optimum "true positive" vs "false positive" performance on the training set. Then, a new method is introduced for adapting these thresholds to the characteristics of individual input images based on histogram cluster analysis. If a particular pixel is found to belong to more than one class, a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) rule is employed to resolve the ambiguity. The performance improvement obtained by the proposed adaptive hypothesis testing approach over using universal decision thresholds is demonstrated by annotating a database of 31 images.
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Date: 1996-03

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